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The first transitional period

Ahmed Samir

what is the first transitional period.

After the collapse of the central government in Egypt at the end of the Old Kingdom, the administration was unable to sustain the economy and stability of the country. Provincial rulers could not count on the king for help in a time of crisis, and the subsequent period of food shortages and political strife and strife exacerbated famines and small-scale civil wars. Despite these difficult problems, local leaders, reckless of the pharaoh, used their newfound independence to establish a thriving civilization in the provinces.

The first transitional period
The first transitional period


By controlling the province's own resources, provinces and provinces became economically richer; It is a fact witnessed by all segments of society. The local craftsmen relied on and adapted decorations that were previously forbidden in the Old Kingdom, in addition to new literary styles that he turned to express optimism and the authenticity of this period.

Local rulers began competing with each other for control of land and political power, turning away from their loyalty to the pharaoh. By 2160 BC, the rulers of Heracliopolis controlled Lower Egypt, while the Intef dynasty, one of the rival clans of Thebes, controlled Upper Egypt. With the growth of the Entif's power and control in the north, a clash between the two clans became inevitable. The Theban forces led by Mentuhotep II defeated the ruler of Herakliopolis, re-unifying the two lands and beginning a cultural and economic renaissance known as the Middle Kingdom.

Middle country

The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country's prosperity and stability, stimulating art, literature, and massive building projects. Mentuhotep II and his successors from the Eleventh Dynasty ruled the country from Thebes as the capital of the country, but soon the matter changed when Minister Amenemhat I handed over the property to the Twelfth Dynasty in 1985 BC, when he changed the capital and made it to Tajtawi, which is located in Fayoum now. The pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty developed a long-term plan for land reclamation and irrigation systems to increase agricultural production in the country. Moreover, the army recaptured Nubia, which is rich in quarries and gold, and the workers worked to build a defensive structure in the eastern delta called the "Ruler's Walls" to repel external attacks.

The first transitional period

The country prospered in art and religion with military security, politics, and agricultural security. In contrast to the attitude of the ancient state elite towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom saw an increase in expressions of "personal piety" or what might be called "the democracy of the afterlife", which gave each individual a spirit that could be welcome next to the gods after death. 

The literature of the Middle Kingdom was also distinguished by the sophisticated compositions of themes and characters written in an eloquent and daring style, and the relief and figurative sculpture of the period of hidden arrests, were individual details that reached new levels of technical perfection.

The last ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III, allowed Asian settlers to live in the delta region, to provide an adequate labor force especially in active mining and city building. 

Subsequently, these ambitious building and mining activities, as well as the inadequacy of the subsequent Nile floods at Mulk, precipitated economic tension from decay into the Second Intermediate Period during the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties. During this decline, the Asian foreign community began to dominate the delta region, which later and eventually led to the extension of their power to northern Egypt and the Hyksos.