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Golden mask of Psusennes I


Mummy golden mask of Psusennes I

Psusennes I (Ancient Egyptian: pꜣ-sbꜣ-ḫꜥ-n-njwt. Greek Ψουσέννης) was the third pharaoh. of the 21st Dynasty who administered from Tanis somewhere in the range of 1047 and 1001 BC. Psusennes is the Greek adaptation of his unique name Pasibkhanu or Pasebakhaenniut (in recreated Late Egyptian:/pəsiwʃeʕənneːʔə/), and that signifies "The Star Appearing in the City" while his privileged position name, Akheperre Setepenamun, deciphers as "Extraordinary are the Manifestations of Ra, picked of Amun." He was the child of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XI's little girl by Tentamun. He wedded his sister Mutnedjmet.

golden mask of Psusennes I
.Golden mask of Psusennes I

Psusennes I's exact rule length is obscure on the grounds that various duplicates of Manetho's records acknowledge him for a rule of either 41 or 46 years. A few Egyptologists have proposed raising the long term figure by 10 years to 51 years to all the more intently match specific unknown Year 48 and Year 49 dates in Upper Egypt.

In any case, the German Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln has recommended that this multitude of dates ought to be credited to the serving High Priest of Amun, Menkheperre rather who is expressly reported in a Year 48 record. Jansen-Winkeln noticed that "in the principal half of Dyn. 21, [the] HP Herihor, Pinedjem I and Menkheperre have regal traits and [royal] titles to varying degrees" though the initial three Tanite lords (Smendes, Amenemnisu and Psusennes I) are never alluded to by name in Upper Egypt except for one graffito and rock stela for Smendes. conversely, the name of Psusennes I's Twenty-first Dynasty replacements like Amenemope, Osorkon the Elder, and Siamun show up much of the time in different records from Upper Egypt while the Theban High Priest Pinedjem II who was a contemporary of the last three rulers never embraced any imperial credits or titles in his career.

golden mask of Psusennes I
.Golden mask of Psusennes I

Subsequently, two separate Year 49 dates from Thebes and Kom Ombo could be credited to the decision High Priest Menkheperre in Thebes rather than Psusennes I yet this stays dubious. Psusennes I's rule has been assessed at 46 years by the editors of the Handbook to Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Psusennes I probably appreciated genial relations with the serving High Priests of Amun in Thebes during his long rule since the High Priest Smendes II gave a few grave merchandise to this lord which were found in Psusennes II's burial chamber.

Golden mask of Psusennes I

During his long rule, Psusennes constructed the nook walls and the focal piece of the Great Temple at Tanis which was committed to the set of three of Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Psusennes was apparently the ruler liable for becoming Tanis into a completely fledged capital city, encompassing its sanctuary with an impressive block temenos wall with its safe-haven devoted to Amun being made out of blocks rescued from the neglected Pi-Ramesses. A large number of these blocks were unaltered and kept the name of Pi-Ramesses' manufacturer, Ramesses II, including monoliths actually bearing the name of Ramesses II moved from the previous capital of Pi-Ramesses to Tanis.

Psusennes had taken his sister, Mutnedjmet, in marriage, notwithstanding the Lady Wiay. Just two of Psusennes I's youngsters remain identifiable.


Prof. Pierre Montet found pharaoh Psusennes I's flawless burial place (No.3 or NRT III) in Tanis in 1940. Unfortunately, because of its soggy Lower Egypt area, the vast majority of the short-lived wood objects were obliterated by water - a destiny not shared by KV62, the burial place of Tutankhamun in the drier environment of Upper Egypt. Rather than KV62, Psusennes I's burial place holds the differentiation of being the main pharaonic grave at any point found sound by any burial chamber burglarizing attempts. The burial chamber of Tutankhamun had been ransacked two times in antiquity.

Notwithstanding the obliteration of wooden relics inside the burial place because of the wet Nile delta region, the lord's brilliant funerary veil was recuperated flawless; it ended up being made of gold and lapis lazuli and held decorates of high contrast glass for the eyes and eyebrows of the object. Psusennes I's cover is viewed as "one of the works of art of the treasure[s] of Tanis" and is at present housed in Room 2 of the Cairo Museum. It has a greatest width and level of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively. The pharaoh's "fingers and toes had been encased in gold slows down, and he was covered with gold shoes on his feet. The finger slows down are the most intricate at any point found, with etched fingernails. Each finger wore an intricate ring of gold and lapis lazuli or some other semiprecious stone."

Psusennes I's external and center stone coffins had been reused from past entombments in the Valley of the Kings through the state-endorsed burial place ransacking that was normal practice in the Third Intermediate Period. A cartouche on the red external stone coffin shows that it had initially been made for Pharaoh Merenptah, the nineteenth Dynasty replacement of Ramesses II. Psusennes I, himself, was entombed in an "inward silver casket" which was trimmed with gold. Since "silver was extensively more extraordinary in Egypt than gold," Psusennes I's silver "final resting place addresses an extravagant entombment of incredible abundance during Egypt's declining years."

Dr. Douglas Derry, who functioned as the head of Cairo University's Anatomy Department, analyzed the lord's remaining parts in 1940 and established that the ruler was an elderly person when he died. Derry noticed that Psusennes I's teeth were severely worn and brimming with depressions, that he had a boil that left an opening in his sense of taste, and saw that the ruler experienced broad joint pain and was presumably disabled by this condition in his last years.