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Ramesses XI the tenth pharaoh


Ramesses XI

(likewise composed Ramses and Rameses)

He reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth. He was the last pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Egypt and in this capacity. was the last lord of the timeframe of the New Kingdom. He ruled Egypt for at least 29 years. Few of the Egyptologists were probably able to manage it for as long as 30 years. The last option number could be up to two years after this ruler's most known date. It is the tenth year of Mswt's tenure or the 28th year of his reign. One scholar, Ad Thijs, has suggested that Ramses XI may have reigned for up to 33 years.

Ramesses XI the tenth & final pharaoh
Ramesses XI the tenth & final pharaoh

It is accepted that Ramesses governed into his Year 29 since a graffito records that the general and High Priest of Amun Piankh got back to Thebes from Nubia on III Shemu day 23 — or only 3 days into what might have been the beginning of Ramesses XI's 29th regnal year. Piankh is known to have crusaded in Nubia during Year 28 of Ramesses XI's rule (or Year 10 of the Whm Mswt) and would have gotten back to Egypt in the next year.


Ramesses XI was once remembered to be the child of Ramesses X by Queen Tyti who was a King's Mother, King's Wife and King's Daughter in her titles. However, ongoing insightful examination into specific duplicates of parts of the Harris papyrus (or Papyrus BM EA 10052)- - made by Anthony Harris — which talks about a group of concubines connivance against Ramesses III uncovers that Tyti was fairly a sovereign of pharaoh Ramesses III instead. Hence, Ramesses XI's mom was not Tyti and despite the fact that he might have been a child of his ancestor, this isn't laid out by the same token. 

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Ramesses XI is accepted to have hitched Tentamun, the girl of Nebseny, with whom he is expected to have fathered Duathathor-Henuttawy — the future spouse of the great cleric Pinedjem I. Ramesses XI might have had another girl named Tentamun who became ruler Smendes' future spouse in the following administration.

At some point during his rule, the High Priest of Amun, Amenhotep, was expelled from office by Pinehesy, the Viceroy of Kush who for quite a while assumed command over the Thebais. Albeit this "concealment of the High Priest of Amun" used to be dated very right off the bat in the rule (preceding year 9 of the reign), as of late the communis opinio has changed to the view that it occurred just presently before the beginning of the Whm Mswt or Renaissance, a period which was introduced in regnal Year 19, most likely to stretch the arrival of typical circumstances following the upset of Pinehesy.

The whm-mswt era

Ramesses XI's rule is striking for countless significant papyri that have been found, including the Adoption Papyrus, which makes reference to regnal years 1 and 18 of his rule; Pap. B.M. 10052, Pap. Mayer A, Pap. B.M. 10403 and Pap. B.M. 10383 (the last four containing the records of burial chamber burglary preliminaries directed during the initial two years of the Whm Mswt); Pap. Ambras (containing a rundown of reports which were repurchased in year 6 of the Whm Mswt, in the wake of having been taken from some sanctuary file, most likely during the turbulent time of the concealment of the High Priest of Amun Amenhotep); the Turin Taxation Papyrus, of an unknown year 12; Pap. B.M. 10068, which remembers for its verso two records, called the House-list (from a vague year 12) and the Srmt-list (undated, however somewhat later than the Houselist); Pap. B.M. 9997, of an unknown year 14 and 15; and a whole series of Late Ramesside Letters composed by - among others-the recorders of the Necropolis Dhutmose, Butehamun, and the High Priest Piankh. Late Ramesside Letter no. 9 lays out that the Whm Mswt period endured into a tenth year (which pretty much compares year 28 legitimate of Ramesses XI).

Ad Thijs, in a GM 173 paper, noticed that the House-list, which is namelessly dated to Year 12 of Ramesses XI (i.e., the report was gathered in either Year 12 of the pre-Renaissance time frame or during the Whm Mswt period itself), specifies two authorities: the Chief Doorkeeper Pnufer, and the Chief Warehouseman Dhutemhab. These people were recorded as just a conventional Doorkeeper and Warehouseman in Papyri BM 10403 and BM 10052 separately, which are unequivocally dated to Year 1 and 2 of the Whm Mswt period. 

This would propose from the outset that the Year 12 House-list postdates these two records and was made in Year 12 of the Whm Mswt period all things being equal (or Regnal Year 30 legitimate of Ramesses XI), which would represent these two people's advancements. Thijs continues to involve a few mysterious Year 14 and 15 dates in another papyrus, BM 9997, to contend that Ramesses XI inhabited least into his 32nd and 33rd Regnal Years (or Years 14 and 15 of the Whm Mswt). 

This report makes reference to a specific Sermont, who was just named a conventional Medjay (Nubian 'police officer') in the Year 12 House-list yet is classified "Head of the Medjay" in Papyrus BM 9997. Sermont's advancement would consequently imply that BM 9997 postdates the House-list Papyrus and should be put late in the Renaissance period. In the event that valid, Ramesses XI ought to have made due into his 33rd Regnal Year or Year 15 of the Whm Mswt period prior to passing on.

However, one could contend that there are periodic irregularities in the depiction of a person's exact title even inside a similar source record itself: Whereas Papyrus Mayer A few times specifies a "Dhuthope, Chief Doorkeeper of the sanctuary of Amun", in col. 5, line 15 this equivalent individual is plainly introduced as a simple "Doorkeeper", which would unequivocally debilitate Thijs' case. On the other hand, as Goelet notes concerning this last section: 

"rather than relating the typical beatings and admissions, the record basically states: 'There was brought the doorkeeper Djehuty-hotep'". Since there could be no further subtleties added, which is a peculiarity inside the papyrus, this recommends that the relevant passage was deserted by the copyist, maybe on the grounds that he understood that he had committed an error. By and by, Thijs' case for a Year 33 legitimate for Ramesses XI ought to be treated with alert. Since there are two verified advancements of people in 2 separate papyri, in any case, there is plausible that Ramesses XI did live into his 33rd regnal Year.

Thijs in his GM 173 paper, likewise exhibited that the House-list and the Turin Taxation papyrus were close so as to one another since the two reports notice a year 12 date and name specific people, for example, the head of the Medjay Nesamun, the herder Penhasi and the angler Kadore. 

Due to this association, Thijs contended that the Taxation Papyrus additionally had a place with the whm-mswt time. Nonetheless, this would suggest that in year 12 of the whm-mswt the emissary Pinehesy got back to office to administer in the assortment of duties in the Theban region, after he had turned into an adversary of the state prior in the time, because of his job in briefly stifling the High Priest Amenhotep. 

In P. BM 10383 2, 4-5 (from year 2 of the whm-mswt, albeit the period isn't unequivocally referenced in the heading) a specific Peison states that, at some point prior, Pinehesy stifled his (viz., Peison's) unrivaled, which is accepted by most Egyptologists as a kind of perspective to Pinehesy expelling the High Priest Amenhotep. Pinehesy was in this manner assigned as an adversary in a few papyri from year 1 and 2 of the whm-mswt (equalling year 19 and 20 legitimate of Ramesses XI) where his name was reliably related "by the nDs [or] ('terrible') bird as its determinative" in these papyri.

How the very anarchic time of the Suppression was finished and who eventually constrained Pinehesy out of Thebes is obscure, because of an absence of unequivocal sources. Notwithstanding, it appears to be that Pinehesy withdrew to Nubia and prevailed with regards to keeping up with some kind of powerbase there for north of 10 years. 

In year 10 of the whm-mswt the then broad and High Priest Piankh goes on a campaign to Nubia to "meet Pinehesy". In spite of the fact that it is many times hypothesized that it was the point of this mission to battle the previous Viceroy, this is in no way, shape or form certain. 

The sources are really uncertain on this point and the political environment might well have changed throughout the long term. There is some proof that as of now Piankh may never again have been a steadfast worker of Ramesses XI, which takes into consideration the likelihood that he was covertly haggling with Pinehesy, potentially in any event, plotting against the supreme lord. 

E. Wente stated: "One has the feeling that the emissary and his Nubian troops were supporters, for the comments made by his adversary Piankh in letter No. 301 are very trashing of the pharaoh, Ramesses XI." In this letter, also called LRL no. 21, Piankh remarks:

As for Pharaoh, l.p.h., how might he arrive at this land? Furthermore, of whom is Pharaoh, l.p.h., prevalent still?

In a similar letter and two others (LRL no. 34 and negative. 35) Piankh provides the request to the Scribe of the Necropolis Tjaroy (=Dhutmose), the woman Nodjmet and a specific Payshuuben to covertly capture and question two Medjay cops about specific things they had obviously said:

Assuming they figure out that (it is) valid, you will put them (in) two bushels and (they) will be tossed (into) this water around evening time. Yet, don't give anyone access the land find out.

Though Piankh would most likely have had the position to have individuals executed, it is significant that his journalists are unequivocally asked to stay quiet. It has been contended that, given Piankh's preeminent situation at that point, the mystery can have concerned the king. If this is right, it follows what is going on of the time probably been extremely perplexing, with Piankh conceivably following up on some secret plan. Tragically, because of the exceptionally restricted nature of the sources, the specific connections between the three primary heroes, Piankh, Pinehesy and Ramesses XI stay nowhere near clear. A few researchers accept that the Nubian lobby was important for a continuous battle for control between the High Priest of Amun and the Viceroy of Kush However, it is similarly conceivable that Piankh acted the hero of Pinehesy against some shared adversary. The action word frequently made an interpretation of as "to assault (Pinehesy)" just signifies "to meet/to go to". as a matter of fact, neither the point of the undertaking nor its result are certain. The issue is additionally convoluted by the continuous discussion about the request for High Priests (either Herihor before Piankh or Piankh before Herihor) and the right attribution (either to the pre-Renaissance time frame or to the whm-mswt itself) of a few records from the rule of Ramesses XI.

As of now, Thijs' idea that Pinehesy was obviously restored by Ramesses XI in year 11 or 12 of the whm-mswt has just been unequivocally acknowledged by the Egyptologist A. Dodson.